Added: Stanley Carothers - Date: 11.03.2022 10:43 - Views: 40344 - Clicks: 7778
Aashir Nasim, Melissa D. Blank, Caroline O. Cobb, Brittany M. Berry, May G. Cigar smoking is increasingly common among adolescents who perceive cigars as less harmful than cigarettes. In Study 1, we conducted a descriptive content analysis on the characteristics of 26 randomly sampled cigar product modification CPM videos posted during — These findings highlight a novel means for youth to access information concerning CPM that may have important implications for tobacco control policy and prevention.
A decade ago, several studies forewarned of an emergent tobacco subculture involving cigar use among urban African American and Hispanic youth [ 1—3 ]. Employing ethnographic and focus group methodologies, these studies described cigar users who possessed their own smoking colloquialisms prevailing smoking attitudes and beliefs systems, and complex cigar improvisation methods believed to reduce their risks for tobacco-related harms.
Despite intriguing findings, these studies on cigar use were largely overshadowed by a proliferation of epidemiological studies that highlighted the declining ificance of cigarette use among youth.
For example, rates among to year-olds in Virginia were Notably, cigar-use prevalence may be disproportionately increasing among individuals of African-American descent. Recent data from nationally representative survey among high school students Freak a black and mild a ificant increase in current cigar use from 7. These findings are supported by from nationally representative surveys, where rates of current cigar use among to year-old non-Hispanic Blacks ranged from Interestingly, from this same survey revealed that use of the top five cigar brands, and a greater intensity of cigar use, was more prevalent among young, male, non-Hispanic Blacks [ 9 ].
Such trends may reflect cigar product characteristics such as reduced price [ 10 ] and enticing flavors like cherry, strawberry and chocolate [ 11 ]. Importantly, constituent ingredients, including flavoring agents, have been restricted in cigarette products but not in large cigars, cigarillos or little cigars [ 12 ]. Many users also perceive fewer health risks associated with cigar smoking [ 13 ], perhaps in part because of their ability to modify these products [ 14 ].
Moreover, modified cigars likely contain comparable amounts of CO to unmodified cigar products when smoked ad lib [ 17 ]. A modern means to learn about unorthodox tobacco-use methods may be via social media like YouTube. Users of YouTube watch approximately 3 billion hours of videos per month and approximately 72 hours of video per minute [ 21 ]. The videos generated may derive from amateurs or professionals, and distinguishing between sources has proven challenging [ 22 ].
Importantly, such web-based venues are not subject to regulatory oversight to the same degree as traditional media such as radio, newspaper and television. Unfortunately, most of these videos are pro-tobacco rather than anti-tobacco [ 27—29 ]. Moreover, music and graphically enhanced content are prevalent in most videos with pro-smoking messages [ 28 ]. Over a decade of research demonstrates the power of smoking imagery and tobacco marketing on the initiation and progression of cigarette-use behavior among adolescents [ 30—32 ].
YouTube as a medium of observation already has proven to be a useful way to learn about electronic nicotine-delivery systems i. ed YouTube videos and comments that accompany them may be important sources Freak a black and mild adolescent users who search for information about tobacco product characteristics and smoking-related practices. Consequently, these videos and associated content that illustrate CPM specifically may purport knowledge about the product and knowingly or unknowingly propagate unsafe practices and faulty beliefs about these tobacco products.
The EPVI is both exploratory and descriptive. Through EPVI, the researchers work to avoid individual presuppositions and biases about the absence or presence of certain phenomena. This study employed a two-stage sampling procedure: network or snowball sampling and probability-proportional-to-size PPS sampling. Network sampling, also referred to as snowball sampling, was used to search for CPM videos on YouTube.
This sampling procedure is particularly useful for studies utilizing Internet search engines that yield targeted as well as related content in response to a web search query. YouTube web search queries are facilitated by Google and employ pigeon-rank technology to rate the relevance of searchable content.
Specifically, when a particular search term is entered, all video and textual e.
The most relevant content is presented first, followed by a presentation of content that decreases in overall relevance to the initial search query see Fig. Similar to the Google search process, the network sampling procedure is based on the concept of intertextuality—the notion that data units i. Thus, when the search process reaches its boundaries, either the same content is presented again, or the of relevant content ificantly diminishes. YouTube screenshot showing a Black and Mild video and related search content.
This process was initiated with a general search term e. The terms for the initial search query e. We used the derived etic procedure i. From this general universe of content, trained coders formed a series of judgments based on their initial review of the video. The second judgment by trained coders involved distinguishing videos that depicted the lifestyle and culture of cigar use versus videos that provided smoking illustrations.
Trained coders then determined whether the illustration was about typical use e. The decision scheme was revised and amended based on the potency of the initial search term. A Freak a black and mild sampling procedure, PPS sampling, was used to ensure that a representative sample of the CPM videos could be captured based on the availability and popularity of videos posted during a particular year.
PPS is most useful when sampling units e. We chose a at random between 1 and the SI, called a random start RS. Then, based on well-defined PPS procedures [ 38 ], the SI and RS were used in a series equation to select eligible videos to be included in the sample. Once the sample of videos containing references to cigars was drawn, we created a catalogue of these videos. Back-up videos were saved on a network and backed-up on DVDs.
An important step in the search, identification and recording process is to determine whether multiple searches by multiple trained coders yield similar content. Therefore, we examined reliability via three basic reliability tests: stability, reproducibility and accuracy [ 37 Freak a black and mild. Stability was determined by having each trained coder re-search and re-categorize a subset of ly categorized videos test-retest. Reproducibility was assessed by having a trained coder replicate the work of a fellow trained coder test-test.
We report this reliability coefficient where appropriate. Between October and Decembertrained coders entered keywords e. Additionally, through the derived etic procedure, trained coders discovered and searched additional terms used to describe CPM. These everyday use terms included keywords that described cigar brands e. Snowball sampling revealed over videos pertaining to cigars.
Then, we used the aforementioned decision tree to identify videos specific to CPM. We followed these procedural steps: Step 1: determined the of years to be sampled; Step 2: determined the total population of videos for each year; Step 3: determined the total of videos to be sampled; Step 4: computed the SI; and Step 5: chose a RS. Step 1: The of years sampled equaled five from to Step 2: The total population of videos identified between the years and equaled ; however, only of the videos were deemed viewable by our research team.
Therefore, by year, the total of videos equaled 5 in30 in53 in74 in and 64 in Step 5: We chose an RS equal to 1. Based on this logic, the following videos sequenced by year were sampled in this study: Video no 1 in ; Video nos 10, 19 and 28 in ; Video nos 37, 46, 55, 64, 73 and 82 in ; Video nos 91,,in and Video nos,and in More plainly, 1 of 5 videos in ; 3 of 30 videos in ; 6 of 53 videos in ; 9 of 74 videos in and 7 of 64 videos in We reed the sampled videos Video no 1— as V—V for presentation purposes only.
We developed a video data codebook and trained coders in its use. Variables in the codebook reflected defined characteristics and features of videos illustrating CPM: items pertaining to video content characteristics such as video demographics i. Frequencies and reliabilities were computed and reported on content characteristics of each CPM video. Videos with similar features i. Next, videos were clustered based on their similarities and dissimilarities.
That is, videos that featured similar characteristics were placed in the same cluster or in clusters with close proximity; whereas videos that did not contain these features were placed in a different cluster or no cluster at all. The rationale for forming video clusters was to facilitate the identification of patterns among sets of videos. Once the video data were clustered and indexed, we inferred what the patterns of data represented in terms of behavioral patterns associated with CPM.
The analysis of video content was guided by the derived etic procedure. Each transcript was automatically filed with its associated video. Researchers and trained coders Freak a black and mild first-level coding on the video transcripts to identify distinct concepts and related to CPM. A consensus among researchers and coders was reached on the final concepts and and their associated descriptions.
This information was transferred to a data table and used by trained coders to rate the salience of certain concepts i. We report the frequency of each theme, average of references to a particular theme in each video, and inter-coder reliability. Trained coders transcribed all comments written in response to a sampled video on cigar use and CPM. They then reviewed the original text word and phrases for each video comment and tabulated frequencies for each keyword and word phrase as performed in Study 1. Following tabulation, keywords and word phrases were categorized according to context and meaning units.
Once meaning units were determined, recurring meaning units were identified and grouped together. This process continued until a sufficient of meaning units were grouped i.
Coders next generated themes for each group of message units. We report the frequency of each message unit according to its theme, average of message unit representing a particular theme in each video and inter-coder reliability. A substantial majority of comments directed toward CPM videos were deemed nonsensical, un-interpretable or not relevant to the video or tobacco use in general. These were populated with comments related to a critique of the video and its content, consultation and support and experiential learning. CPM videos averaged more than 13 unique viewers range —81 Only 3 As a consequence, these data are no longer available to general viewers.
Cigar product packaging e.
In Trained coders rated about one-quarter of the CPM videos as high quality i. The content characteristics of all videos are presented in Table II. As illustrated in Fig. Following modification, the cigar was ready to be lit and smoked by the user. Importantly, this process did not involve adding marijuana or other illicit substances. Screenshots were taken from a YouTube video posted on 25 July Table III presents the percentage of videos where this theme was salient and average references of times a specific video referred to this theme of a theme in each video.
The theme that CPM made the cigar easier to smoke was evidenced in A perceived benefit of CPM was increasing the smoothness of the cigar. According to one African American male user who remarked on why CPM renders the cigar easier to smoke: I see plenty a yall walkin round and ya mild just as hard and stiff but Suckin ya jaws in just ta hit it.Freak a black and mild
email: [email protected] - phone:(661) 882-9051 x 7903
Talk:Black & Mild