Added: Daphnie Dodgen - Date: 04.03.2022 18:12 - Views: 17716 - Clicks: 2995
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Although experimental studies support that men generally respond more to visual sexual stimuli than do women, there is substantial variability in this effect. One potential source of variability is the type of stimuli used that may not be of equal interest to both men and women whose preferences may be dependent upon the activities and situations depicted. The current study investigated whether men and women had preferences for certain types of stimuli. We measured the subjective evaluations and viewing times of 15 men and 30 women 15 using hormonal contraception to sexually explicit photos.
Heterosexual participants viewed pictures that were controlled for the sexual activity depicted, gaze of the female actor, and the proportion of the image that the genital region occupied.
Men and women did not differ in their overall interest in the stimuli, indicated by equal subjective ratings and viewing times, although there were preferences for specific types of pictures. Women rated pictures in which the female actor was looking indirectly at the camera as more attractive, while men did not discriminate by female gaze. Participants did not look as long at close-ups of genitals, and men and women on oral contraceptives rated genital images as less sexually attractive. Together, these data demonstrate sex-specific preferences for specific types of stimuli even when, across stimuli, overall interest was comparable.
Men are typically assumed to respond more to visual sexual stimuli than women. This variability may be due, in part, to the use of uncontrolled and varied types of experimental sexual stimuli. Understanding what specific content males and females find sexually attractive could have practical implications for future sex research that aims to use stimuli of equal interest to males and females, and also contribute to our understanding of determinants of sexual response patterns in general.
The primary sex difference is whether the stimuli depict same or opposite-sex actors. In contrast, women generally rate photos of both males and females comparably attractive or arousing Costa et al. In the Laan et al. This finding suggests that the type of sexual activity depicted in the stimuli is important to males and females in their response to such stimuli.
However, when the amount of foreplay, oral sex, and intercourse was balanced in male and female selected films in the Janssen et al. Generally, eye-tracking studies find more same-sex viewing interest in women than men Lykins et al. However, despite differences in gaze patterns, there were no sex differences in subjective ratings of the stimuli Lykins et al. Because men and women did not differ in subjective ratings, but had different patterns of attention, it is possible that men and women have different cognitive processing strategies when viewing sexual stimuli, and the different strategies produce equal levels of arousal though the aspects of the images visualized were different.
Different types of stimuli may provide men and women with variable opportunities to use their preferred viewing strategies and maximize their interest in and arousal to the stimuli. Although eye tracking studies further demonstrate that men and women may have different preferences for certain specific components of sexual stimuli, it is still unclear how these content preferences translate into the kinds of stimuli men and women may prefer.
This further suggests that subjective ratings may not capture possible sex difference in initial interest in and cognitive processing of visual sexual stimuli. We do not yet know the exact relationship between neural activation, reflecting changes in cognitive processing, and subjective and conscious evaluations of sexual stimuli.
Conscious subjective evaluation of stimuli is a complex process emerging from multiple cognitive components, which may differ between men and women or with context. Differences in hormones between men and women, and within women based on hormonal contraceptive use would be expected to be a relevant factor influencing the cognitive processing of sexual stimuli due to its influence on sexual interest and motivation for sexual stimuli in general.
However, it is unknown whether individual factors, such as hormones, influence preferences or interest in specific types of stimuli. The current study aimed to determine whether men and women have reliable preferences for certain stimuli. It is possible that there is overlap, in addition to differences, in preferences that could be utilized in experimental situations to provide stimuli of equal interest to men and women that Images of intercourse between male and female allow for more accurate experimental manipulations.
sex difference studies may have used stimuli that contained Images of intercourse between male and female of more interest to one sex than the other and produced sex differences that were specific to a set of visual sexual stimuli and not generalizable to all visual sexual stimuli. Most prior studies used subjective reports of sexual arousal or attraction.
An alternative method uses genital changes in men and women, but the methodology and physical changes, vasocongestion in women and erection in men, are not comparable between the sexes. In contrast, viewing time offers a direct quantitative assessment of interest in sexual stimuli that does not rely upon subjective reports or genital response.
Similarly, men and women were found to look longer at pornographic images that they rated as more highly arousing Brown, The current study used viewing time as an objective measure of interest in the visual stimuli. The use of this methodology with visual sexual stimuli was intended to produce more objective measurement of preferences for visual sexual stimuli across sexes overall and within sexes based on the content of the stimuli. The current study included stimuli that varied with the sexual activity depicted, gaze of the female actor, and the proportion of the image that the genital region occupied.
Participants were expected to look longer at pictures depicting sexual activities that they preferred. We expected that men would show a preference for pictures depicting other males receiving oral sex and in a dominant intercourse position and vice versa for females due to both sexes tendency to project themselves into scenarios Janssen et al. Due to the male-specific objectification strategy, we expected them to demonstrate more interest in pictures with direct gaze compared to indirect gaze since these photos may allow them to connect more with the female actor.
In contrast, we expected female participants to show more interest in pictures with indirect gaze compared to direct gaze since in may facilitate their projection into the scenario. Understanding Images of intercourse between male and female in preferences for visual sexual stimuli could assist in the interpretation of ly reported subjective, behavioral, and neurological sex differences in response to sexual stimuli and guide the development of stimulus sets of equal interest to men and women for future studies.
This study included 45 heterosexual participants men, normal cycling [NC] women, and oral contraceptive [OC] using women between the ages of 23—35 years of age. Participants were from a variety of ethnic backgrounds. Participants were recruited through e-mail lists from Images of intercourse between male and female, GA area graduate and professional schools.
The recruitment e-mail included a contact phone allowing interested parties to contact research personnel. Upon receipt of the phone call, the experimenter briefly described the study and specified that the participant would be asked to view sexually explicit pictures of couples engaged in oral sex and intercourse. The Sexual Attitudes Scale is a item Likert scale questionnaire asking how much participants agree with certain statements related to how sexually liberal their attitudes are. Lower scores indicated more conservative sexual attitudes. The information provided by potential participants was used for screening purposes to select appropriate participants with heterosexual preference and some experience with pornography.
All of the potential participants who returned completed packets were eligible for the study and contacted for participation. Stimuli were sexually explicit color photos of heterosexual couples engaged in oral sex or intercourse taken from public domain websites. These six activities were chosen to sufficiently describe the activities commonly depicted on mainstream internet pornography websites, but allowing for distinction of the gender in the superior position which we theorized may be a relevant characteristic to men and women in their evaluations of sexual stimuli.
Within each of these activity groupings, pictures were matched with a paired picture containing the same actors and behaviors but differing either by the level of genital focus or by the gaze direction of the female actor. Half of the pictures within each activity variable were matched based on the genital focus: one picture of the scene had a close up focus on the genitals and the other matched picture was a distant perspective of the same scene. The genitals shown in the close up focus were dependent upon the activity depicted, all of the pictures from the intercourse showed pictures of both male and female genitals with penetration, oral sex to male pictures showed only the male genitals, and oral sex to female pictures showed only female genitals.
The other half of the pictures was matched to vary only with the gaze of the female actor. We found pictures in which the female gaze was directed directly at the camera and matched them with nearly identical pictures in which the gaze was averted from the camera. We did not systematically vary the gaze of the male actor in the stimuli because pictures in which the male actor had a direct gaze at the viewer were difficult to find, in contrast to those including direct gaze of the female actor.
Based on the sex difference in the use of an objectification strategy, we also thought it more important to focus on the gaze of the female actor, rather than the male, from a theoretical perspective. A total of pictures were chosen and downloaded from free sites on the Internet with the desired distribution across of sexual activity, genital focus, and female actor gaze.
Before the eye tracking sessions began, these photos were independently rated by seven males and seven females not involved in the study for levels of sexual attractiveness. A score of zero meant that the picture was neutral; neither sexually attractive nor unattractive. A score of indicated a positive reaction to the picture, 1 being the lowest, and 4 the highest rating of sexual attractiveness. The remaining pictures were ranked by mean rating and the pictures with the highest mean ratings from both males and females within each activity were retained for the current study.
The final stimulus set consisted of pictures. Since there were three sessions for each subject, three sets of stimuli 72 pictures each were constructed with equally represented content sexual activity, gaze, genital focus and with statistically equal levels of sexual attractiveness, based on pilot ratings. This produced a total, for each session, of 18 pairs of pictures that varied according to gaze and 18 pairs that varied with genital focus.
Within each of the 18 pairs, three pairs each portrayed the following activities, oral sex to a male by female, oral sex to a female by male, sexual intercourse with female dominant facing the male, sexual intercourse with female dominant facing away from the male, male dominant sexual intercourse facing towards the female, and male dominant intercourse facing away from the partner.
This photo stimulus set with attractiveness ratings is available upon request for research use. After the initial screening based on questionnaireparticipants came in for three test sessions during which they viewed visual sexual stimuli while their viewing time was recorded using Gazetracker software Eye Response Technologies, Charlottesville, VA.
Participants were seated comfortably in front of a laptop computer screen on which they were presented the stimuli. They were told that they could stop at any time and to let the experimenter know if they were uncomfortable at any point. Participants were instructed to look at the sexual image as long as they liked and to end viewing of the slide by pressing the space bar on the keyboard.
Participants viewed a total of 72 pictures during each of three sessions including three pairs within each sexual activity from each stimulus category gaze, genital focus, or activity. Participants viewed the same stimuli as each other during each of the three sessions. The photo presentation was randomized uniquely for each participant within each session so that no subject saw the same order of stimulus presentation as another subject within each session. A one second black screen with fixation crosshairs in the center preceded each photo to assure that the subject began the viewing of each photo from the same starting point.
Viewing occurred privately with the experimenter separated from the testing area by a curtain. The experimenter could not see the participant or what they were looking at throughout testing. Once the participant had viewed all 72 photos, a tone indicated to the experimenter that testing was complete. At this time, the curtain was opened and the session data were saved.
Once they had completed ratings of all 72 photos, as indicated to the experimenter on the other side of the curtain by a tone, testing was complete. Participants Images of intercourse between male and female then compensated for their time and scheduled for their next session.
Initial processing of viewing data used the same Gazetracker software that was used for stimulus presentation. Viewing time data from Gazetracker for each slide were exported into Microsoft Excel. The analyses investigated interest in the visual sexual stimuli.
The dependent variables were viewing Images of intercourse between male and female and subjective ratings of sexual attractiveness. We conducted three different analyses in order to evaluate the effects of activity, gaze, and genital focus. These analyses treated the mean viewing time and subjective rating of each participant for each activity type or category collapsed across all three test sessions as a data point. Main effects, interaction effects, and post-hoc analyses ificant are reported. Table 2 shows mean viewing times as a function of group and sexual activity.
ificant differences are indicated by different letters. Table 3 shows mean viewing times as a function of group, gaze of the female actor, and level of genital focus. Paired contrasts revealed lower ratings within men for pictures depicting oral sex to females, which were rated ificantly lower than all other pictures except for pictures in the MDFB category OSF vs. NC and OC women, in contrast, did not demonstrate a difference in subjective ratings based on the activity depicted.
Overall, participants rated pictures with an indirect female gaze to be more sexually attractive. Further post hoc analyses within gaze category across sexes showed a trend in which men rated pictures in which the female actor was looking directly at them as more sexually attractive than did either group of women vs. Overall, participants rated pictures depicting a close-up focus to be less attractive. However, correlations within groups by activity showed ificant correlations for both OC and NC women that were specific to the activity depicted.
For men, viewing times and subjective ratings were not ificantly correlated for any of the pictures. We did not find a ificant difference between men and women in their overall subjective ratings or viewing times of the stimuli, inconsistent with the commonly held assumption that men find visual sexual stimuli more interesting and arousing than do women. Preferences for specific types of pictures varied by group. Specifically, men and women rated pictures of the opposite sex receiving oral sex as least sexually attractive. Unlike subjective ratings, stimulus preferences for certain activities measured by viewing times did not vary ificantly by group.
Women rated pictures with an indirect female gaze more attractive, although men did not discriminate based on the gaze of the female actor. Participants did not look as long at close-up genital images, and men and OC women rated them less sexually attractive than pictures less focused on the genitals. Subjective ratings and viewing times were correlated only in women for pictures that held the strongest attraction or aversion, specifically those depicting oral sex to males or females and close-up genital views.
Together, these data demonstrate sex-specific preferences for certain types of stimuli even when overall interest across stimuli was equal. The preferences for same-sex oral sex stimuli were consistent with literature in which women use projection strategies when viewing sexual stimuli, while men use both objectification and projection strategies.
This could explain why both men and women had subjective preferences for pictures in which a member of their own sex was receiving, but not giving, oral sex. Men, however, also used an objectification strategy when viewing visual sexual stimuli, in which they imagined themselves engaged in sexual activity with the female actor. That women are thought to project themselves into sexual scenarios, rather than objectify the actor, could contribute to their observed preference for stimuli in which the female actor gazed indirectly.
A direct gaze may give more presence or identity to the female actor, making it more difficult for the women to imagine that it is them in the sexual scenario, and not the female actor. Men, who are thought to use both objectification and projection strategies, did not discriminate based on the gaze of the female actor. Another well-known sex difference possibly contributing to the findings of the current study is that women do not demonstrate the same category-specific response to sexual stimuli as do men Chivers et al. Specifically, heterosexual women will respond sexually to stimuli of their non-preferred sex, while men will not Chivers et al.Images of intercourse between male and female
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